Pages: 31-37

Quality assessment of surface waters within Ekiti State, Nigeria

Author: P I. Orjiakor, M. E. Afolabi, O. M. Ajunwa, S. A. Ohunayo

Category: Biology

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Abstract:

The quality of surface water within Ado Ekiti, Nigeria was assessed to ascertain their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Sampling locations were Olumoroko River, Adanhun River, Akereyun Ayetoro River and Eegberin River, all located within major towns in Ekiti State. The collected samples were examined for physical, heavy metals and bacteriological contamination using standard techniques. All the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and temperature) analyzed were within the WHO standard except for turbidity (3.1-9.40 NTU), which confirms the significantly low levels of dissolved oxygen (1.00-1.40 mg/L) observed. The heavy metals (Chromium, Lead, Iron and nickel) analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) also exceeded the WHO standard in most of the locations. Chromium (Cr) varied between 0.16 mg/L and 0.29mg/L, Lead (Pb) ranged from 0.30 mg/L to 2.40 mg/L, Iron (Fe) ranged from 4.10 mg/L to 9.50 mg/L, and Nickel (Ni) from 0.03 mg/L to 0.60 mg/L. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that Pb did not vary significantly, whereas the levels of Cr, Fe and Ni varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the sampling locations samples. Total coliform counts (0.13 - 0.43 x 102 CFU/mL) were within the WHO standard, but were exceeded by the total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts (1.67 - 2.15 x 102 CFU/mL) in almost all the sampling locations. The relatively poor quality of the surface water could be attributed to the intense unhealthy human activities observed in the study locations. Hence, public education on strict compliance to government policies on waste disposal and management procedures is recommended in the study location.

Keywords: Surface water, Chemical quality, Bacteria, Ekiti State


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